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The Theory of Memory in GMS®


This article is an introduction to the “Giordano Memorization System®’” (GMS®) memory model. For more detailed information on this subject see our “GMS Manual”.

The GMS® model of memory strongly differs from memory models you might have read about in the psychological literature.

Process - "memory"

«Memory» process - is one of the mental processes of the brain, responsible for formation and preservation of connection between nerve cells.

It is difficult to get used to the idea that memory is a connection


Example - A doctor taps on a leg nerve and that legs' muscle is contracted reflectively. The unconditioned reflex works just as well as the connection genetically incorporated in the brain. This connection is memory.

Correctly organized experience facilitates understanding


Example - You come home and see a guitar on a hanger and which instantly lets you know about who came over to visit. The stimulus "guitar" causes a complete image of the person whom you repeatedly saw with this guitar. The connection between the image of a guitar and the image of this person amounts to your memory. GMS® allocates and uses two kinds of memory.


Reaction to stimulus arises in imagination. The brain completes the picture-stimulus till a complete image 


Memorization is a complex process of building a system of connections in the brain based on interaction of several mental processes such as memory, attention, thinking, sensation, and representation.

GMS® divides "memory" and "memorization". Efficiency of memorization depends not only on memory. If one of the mental processes (thinking, attention, representation) is disturbed then memorization becomes impossible even if the «memory» process is operable.

There are three kinds of memorization:


Unintentional memorization

When you walk down the street your brain automatically records connections between images. You do not need to do anything for memorization as eyes observe previously connected images. The perception of images with the same or similar contour is a signal for engaging the «memory» process. Something that is called "cognitive maps" in psychology is created in the brain automatically, during natural, unintentional memorization.

Intentional memorization

There is information which cannot be remembered spontaneously. If we look at any page in a book we cannot reproduce its content word for word. We need to read it through. When you purposely pay attention to information it is called intentional memorization.

When we read - images appear in our head (mental motion pictures). Images arise and combine spontaneously in our imagination. When that happens, just like in the case of unintentional memorization, our brain remembers connections between images. When we want to retell the story from the page we have read, we recollect pictures and describe them using words. Therefore, retelling the text we have read is always approximate.

If words of the text did not evoke visual patterns in our imagination, we could neither understand, nor memorize the text. The process of transforming words into images is - understanding

Over-Intentional Memorization (Meta-memory)

Texts are measured by their complexity. There are texts which contain a lot of exact information i.e. numbers, last names, titles, terms, formulations, formulas, etc.. When we read such a text our imagination "stumbles" on the exact information because the exact information is not transformed into images. Compare: there is a pencil on the table. Or: to insert suppositories through rectum. The information that the brain could not transform into images automatically is "cut out" from the memory.

When memorizing such texts it is necessary to use over-intentional memorization. This is a kind of memorization where the process of memorizing is completely controlled. When reading a complex text one has to pause at the parts that contain exact information, and purposely remember the sequence of paragraphs in the text and exact data in each paragraph with the help of GMS® methods. A figurative abstract of the text will be created in the brain, which allows to reproduce the text not word for word but very exact, without losing any names, titles, terms or numerical data.

It is not the methods of memorizing that are artificial, but rather, that memorized information which has not been adapted by the brain. GMS® allows one to efficiently code information that cannot be memorized to the brain language.

Storing abilities of an ordinary person lie somewhere in the middle - between intentional and over-intentional memorization. Why in the middle? The reason is because each person tries to invent his or her own memorizing techniques when faced with the necessity to remember something that the brain is not able to.

Inertness of analyzer systems

Let's take visual and auditory analyzers as an example. Analyzer systems of the brain possess inertness. Very often inertness of analyzer systems is mistaken for a memory. Psychologists tend to call it "iconic" or a "short-term" memory which is misleading. In fact, the «memory» process is a formation of connections while in analyzer systems no connections are made.

If we look at a telephone number written on a piece of paper we will continue to see these numbers in our imagination for some time. However, they are not kept in our brain permanently and will be forgotten in a matter of minutes.

If we look at a picture where some images have the same common contour that picture will remain in our memory. In this case, not only does the inertness of the systems of analyzers work but also engages the memory process with respect to the connected images.

Inertness of the visual analyzer is well observed in a dark room. When your eyes get used to the dark bring your palm to your face and for an instant light a spark of a lighter. The consecutive image will appear approximately in one second and will last for about five seconds. You will literally see the palm.

If we hear a number we can easily repeat the last couple digits. This is a demonstration of inertness of the acoustic analyzer. But these figures do not get into memory for just after a minute we are unable to recall them.

But if we hear a sentence "Blue plate is on the white cup of milk" then memory instantly connects to the inertness of the acoustic analyzer. Words cause a combination of images in our imagination. The connections between images are fixed by the «memory» process. We will be able to recollect this sentence the next day and even in a month.

Inertness of analyzers systems is based on the phenomenon of slow synaptic transmission. When the nerve cell receives stimulus it discards special "slow" neuromediators which continue to stimulate the next nerve cell for some time in spite of the fact that the stimulus is not there anymore.

Inertness of the analyzers systems is often mixed up with memory


As connections in the analyzers systems are not formed inertness of these systems cannot be classified as memory. It is exactly inertness - a temporary delay of stimulus.

Nevertheless, inertness of the analyzers systems is mostly used for "memorizing". By consciously repeating numbers or drawing them in the imagination, one can keep the information in the analyzers system for the time sufficient to find a pencil and a notebook.

It is possible to use inertness of visual and auditory analyzers simultaneously. A simple trick with "memory" is based on this (disclosed with permission of Oleg Stepanov). Simultaneous use of the two analyzers allows an exactly two-time increase in the volume of temporarily kept information. Instead of seven figures it is possible to remember fourteen temporarily. Write fourteen figures on a sheet of paper. Keep seven of them in the visual analyzer and pronounce the other seven to keep them in the auditory analyzer.

People will get an illusion of instant memorizing. Unmasking such a conjurer is very easy. After “instant memorizing"  you may offer him or her to solve some addition problems. After that he or she will not be able to recollect the digits that were "instantly remembered".

Let's leave inertness of the analyzers systems to people with thick notebooks and return to memory.

Two-component model of memory

The theory of memory in GMS® emphasizes two kinds of memory - two "memory" processes.

Unlike official psychology which divides memory into short-term and long-term, in GMS® memory is divided into two kinds by the WAY CONNECTIONS are formed. Concepts "short-term memory" and "long-term memory" are not used in GMS®.


The first kind of memory - reflex connections

This type of connections is well studied and described in variety of textbooks. It is known that reflex connections can be unconditional (congenital) and conditional (developed during a lifetime).

When we touch a hot iron our hand is spontaneously drawn aside. This is an example of an unconditional reflex.

When we hear a word "star" we imagine an image of a star. This is a conditional reflex formed in the brain during a learning process.

Reflex connections physically exist in the brain in the form of a synapse zone - the area of chemical transfer of an impulse from one nerve cell to another. It is impossible to classify reflex memory only by presence of synaptic connections. In fact, all nerve cells in the brain have such connections. Synaptic connections between nerve cells of different systems of analyzers that are created in special associative zones of the brain and where all systems of analyzers have their "representations" concern reflex memory.

In associative zones of the brain - connections between different analyzers systems are created

In order to form a reflex connection, processes of nerve cells should be very close, about 50 Angstrom units, and should work periodically within several days.

Reflex connection is uncontrollable - the impulse goes through a nerve cell in one direction.

Reflex connections can be like a chain - one stimulus can start a long sequence of reactions. Such chains of connections are created between intercalary neurons (usually reflex arch includes intermediate nerve cells). The sequence of reactions can "be played" in the imagination - on an idea-motor level or can realized physically with the help of muscles. Internal or simple speech can serve as an example of such consecutive reactions.

One more important feature of the reflex connections chains is that they always aspire to the end. If the program has started a person cannot stop it. For example, it is difficult for a professional typist to suddenly stop typing - she needs to finish typing the sentence. A vivid example of anticipation is speech automatisms when ,having seen or heard the beginning of a phrase, the brain reproduces the entire phrase “roses are red, violets are blue” by itself. The phenomenon of anticipation is used in GMS®, for example, for memorizing phrases of a foreign language.

The second kind of memory - electric (resonant) connections

This kind of memory is not described in psychology. Therefore, in the "Giordano Memorization System” it is named “electric memory”.

Neurophysiologists have studied this kind of memory for a long time but still cannot formulate it. They make an assumption that the information can be kept in a constant, not fading, electric potential on a neurons' membrane. The error is connected with the difficulty of understanding what information is for our brain.

The information for a brain is a consecutive connection of several simple elements. A change in a sequence of connections leads to a ichange of nformation  (in habitual sense of this word).

George Michael - 125-36-72

Michael George - 125-72-36

The sense of memorization lies in memorizing connections between elements.

The information is not kept in electric activity of nerve cells. The information is kept in invisible resonant connection between nerve cells. An example of such a connection can be invisible resonant connection between two identical tuning forks or between two strings which have been tuned to play the same note.

Electric memory - A process of synchronization of electric activity in a group of simultaneously working nerve cells.


Resonant and reflex connections are very different. Reflex connections are an executive system of the brain. The system of such connections are our consciousness and sub-consciousness. Electric connections - are our thinking and imagination. They are "filters" which analyze entrance impulses before the muscular reaction.

GMS® allows to determine experimentally time characteristics of electric memory and also describes its functioning. And, the most important part is that GMS® allows to operate the process of creating such connections.

Connection is formed very quickly - it is enough to keep two connected images in imagination for a couple seconds. The standard time - 6 seconds, the world record - 0,65 sec (Andy Bell, memorizing 52 playing cards).

Natural memorization of speech, texts and all that you see is based on this kind of memory. Memorization in GMS® is different only because images incorporate into imagination in a very special way and according to certain rules.

The connection, once created in a brain, is kept for approximately 40 minutes.

If the connection activates (perceived repeatedly or referred to in imagination) it can be kept in the brain for life. Thus, electric memory is both short-term (40 minutes) and long-term at the same time.

It is possible to form many connections with only one image but the last one which “rubs off” the previous connections will always be recalled. The connections that are "wiped out" are kept in the brain and can be reproduced when reminded of (latent training).

The technique of memorizing in GMS® is constructed in  a way that it allows to remember the information with iterative (repetitive) elements. For example, one number 13 (the same image) can easily be remembered a thousand times. Apparently, in all the cases the connection with this number will be the last i.e. it will be easy to remember it consciously without any help.

The main difference between electric connections and reflex ones consists that electric connections are not unidirectional. If you have created  a sheaf of multiple images in your imagination (have looked at the cat consisting of a muzzle, eyes, ears, a tail, paws etc.) any image can become a stimulus of this sheaf. The reaction to that will always be an occurrence of a complete image in the array of all images connected earlier. It is enough to see just the tail and the imagination will paint in a complete image of a cat.

This kind of connection explains the mechanism by which the brain creates associations. There were some attempts, unsuccessful however, made by Hartly and Sechenov (Yaroshesky, The History of Psychology) to explain the mechanism of forming associations.

Memory will not remember the first picture; it will remember the second one though. Memory reacts to the common contour

A person can manipulate images in his or her imagination and connect them thus, consciously turning on the "memory" process - the process of forming a connection between images with a common contour

It is enough for psychology to have basic schemes (models) and understanding of an essence of the phenomenon with its experimental proof. Therefore, detailed neurophysiologic description of the given kind of memory we will leave to neurophysiologists, to physicists and mathematicians.

The model of memory in GMS® looks very simple:

Inertness of the systems of analyzers of the brain

Cannot be classified as memory, as connections are not formed

About 5 seconds

Slow synaptic transfer

Ability to repeat 7 heard or 7 seen figures


Electric memory (Resonant, associative)

Imagination, thinking, consciousness and sub consciousness

It is not shown in visible activity, but is easily observed introspectively


Formation of a connection – 1-6 seconds

Preservation from 40 minutes up to life time

The connection is created consciously by means of cogitative operation:

"Connection of the two images"

Connections can be created involuntarily, when images with a common contour are recognized

Synchronization of electric activity of simultaneously working neurons, which generate images

Does not react to the exact information (dates, terms, phone numbers, etc.), for memorizing transformation to images is required

Natural memorizing of any visual information, speech


Basic of GMS® methods of memorizing


Reflex memory


The executive system of the brain, is shown in visible muscular activity


The formation of the connection - about 3-X days (in GMS®)

Lifelong preservation

The formation of a synaptic connection between neurons of different analyzers in associative zones of the brain


Everything that is connected with muscular and chemical activity: speech, typewriting, walking, allocation of tear, sneezing etc.


This is a general description of these types of memory. Apparently, different types of memory can cooperate with each other. The model does not consider those kinds of memory which have not been connected with cognitive processes - for example, genetic memory.

To check the time characteristics of electric memory is very simple. In GMS® it is done by registering the volume of the remembered information, time of memorizing and number of errors. For example, when memorizing numbers numbers they are transformed into images and incorporated into a sequence of basic (stimulating) images prepared in advance. Use of a cogitative operation "Connection of images" allows us to remember tens and hundreds of images after seeing them just once. Any information (numbers, terms, names, titles, etc.) can be coded into visual images.

If a person is not trained in GMS® (is not able to memorize), it is possible to check the mechanism of how the formation of a connection between the connected images occurs by consecutively showing pictures on the screen where two images have a common contour. In this case connections will be remembered by the brain automatically.

It is absolutely unessential, that connections are unusual. The brain will remember any connections 

For scanning memory - reading connections - it is necessary to show one of the pictures of a pair. The brain will reproduce the other picture (a person will recollect the second picture of the pair).

The principle of work of memory "Stimulus - reaction" seems quite obvious

The formation of reflex connections in the brain is checked according to speed of recognition. For example - the speed of coding numbers into images should be about 0,5 seconds when figurative codes for numbers are learned. Numbers are shown in a random order.

Subjectively reflex connections of numbers with images are expressed when you look through a series of two-digit numbers, the visual images that correspond to these numbers are generated in the imagination spontaneously. It is very similar to the way we understand words of our native language (a spoon - an image of "spoon", 35 - an image of "cube").

Understanding is a process of transformation of a text (speech) into a combination of visual images in the imagination.

The development of visual thinking (imagination) automatically develops the function of understanding a text information.

You can find detailed information about this subject and glossary in the "GMS® Manual".

As a result, it is difficult to call our brain  “a recording device”. The brain remembers neither images nor words. The brain cannot  remember anything except connections which are the basis for creating (generating) words, images, etc. The function of exact memorization can be emulated in a brain with the help of GMS®. Normally, without any special training, the brain cannot and should not remember what we are used to call "information" (telephone numbers, historical dates, lists, complex texts etc.)

Memory always works "on recognition" as a reaction to stimulus. Active reproduction of the information (without hints) is possible only after special training of the memorization technique - when the system of internal stimulation (system of support images) is created in the brain .

Characteristics of electric memory are obtained through empirically and should be specified during specially organized experiments.

 What to do next? Well, take a visit over to the website that teaches you this stuff, sign up and be you will soon be on your way to mastering your memory. Click HERE


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